Hybrid koi fish farming is one of the most popular fish farming methods. Koi, a native of Japan, is a type of carp with a long history.
Catching wild Koi is no longer an option due to decreasing numbers and environmental problems, so cultivating them is vital for their survival.
Understanding Koi Fish Koi is part of a wide variety of carp species and belongs to the Cyprinid family. Koi Fish have been selectively bred for color, pattern, and scale type.
The Utsuri (crest) and Sanke (three colored Koi) breeds are very popular. They are black or white and have red, yellow, or blue splotches on the body.
How to Start Hybrid Koi fish farming?
The good news is that it is much easier than you think. All you need to start hybrid koi fish farming is a good koi breeder and some pots.
The next step will be to hatch some eggs (you can buy them or start with your own). After hatching, the stage of fry will begin.
You can either let the young fry grow in their natural environment and market them or care for them yourself until the Fish reach 1 inch (2.5 cm) in length. After they come 1 inch (2.5 cm), it’s time to set up the fish ponds.
Classification of Koi Fish
The scientific name and classification of koi fish are listed below.
1. Scientific name
Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758
Family Cyprinidae – Minnow Family
3. General Body Features and Physical Characteristics
Body-color is yellow or white with white or black color on the back and red or blue spots on the body. The fins are red, white, and black. They have a single dorsal fin with 9-12 rays, 2 pectoral fins, and a fatty fin. The adult Koi fish can reach a length of 4cm to 8cm.
4. Breeding and Reproduction
Koi Fish are generally bred in pairs for egg-laying, but it is not unusual for one or two Koi to spawn simultaneously. For better conservation, keep the genetic diversity in your koi farm by allowing one male and a few females to generate in every pond.
5. Distribution and Habitat
These Fish are generally found in the lakes of Japan, China, Korea, and Russia.
6. In India, Koi Fish are generally bred in cold water drains like:
1. Ganga Canal (Hindon)
2. Yamuna River
3. Khanpur drain and channel (near Mathura)
4. Tons river in Delhi and Najafgarh drain/channel on the outskirts of Delhi.
7. In Jammu and Kashmir, Koi Fish are generally bred in the lake of Pahlawan.
8. In Maharashtra, Koi Fish are raised in the lakes of Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve, Nandurbar, and Panchganga rivers.
9. In Assam, Kohi fish are raised in rivers like the Khelaghar tank drain canal, Narayani river, Rangajhar river, and Bhogdangar river.
10. In Haryana, Kohi fish are raised in the rivers like Rohtas, Kurukshetra, Panipat, and Yamuna (shown above).
Pond Selection & Management
Hybrid Koi fish farming can be done on any pond. The size of the pond should be about 1/4 to 1/2 of the total area.
The pond should have high clarity and good lighting. You can also use a natural light source such as fluorescent lamps if possible.
It would help if you started with some small ponds to observe how your koi fish react to them and observe the eggs being hatched from them.
Using Lime & Fertilizer
Along with the mixtures of water and fish food, you should use a variety containing calcium sulfate and phosphate to control algae and provide some minerals (phosphorus, potassium, iron, etc…) to the pond.
You can also use mixtures of lime, cottonseed meal, and fish fertilizer. The best way to know that your Fish are healthy is by checking the color of their fins when you look at them from different sides.
The pH level in the water should be between 5.5 – 6.5. You should check the water quality every day and feed your koi fish with different nutritional supplements as per their needs from time to time.
It is essential to know the diet of your Fish. Try to provide them with different types of food from many various sources. In the beginning, you can feed them with pellets and flakes containing protein, vitamins, and fats.
You should also add supplements to your diet to get adequate sunlight and water. You can provide them with pellets and flakes containing dry organic materials such as wheat flour, rice bran oil, etc.
Rough Feed Management
You should check the ratio in a day and feed your Fish as per their diet. Your fish food should be at least half of the total water volume (2.5 gallons/10 liters).
If you see that your koi fish is getting bored with the food, you can add some live or frozen food to make it more interesting. It is also good to provide them with spirulina flakes, blue-green algae, etc.
Commercial Feed Feed Applying Rate
It would be best if you feed your koi fish once a day. You should always check their diet at least twice a day and remove any expired food.
You should not be feeding them the same food most of the time. It is good to provide them with different types of water plants and seeds to keep them healthy and happy.
You can supplement your koi feed with blood worms, pieces of fish meat, fish scraps, etc…
For 1 kg/2.2 pound of koi fish food, you can use:
1. 100g/3.5oz blood worms
2. 100g/3.5oz fish scraps
3. 100g/3.5oz protein powder
4. 100g/3.5oz wheat flour
5. 200g/7oz bran-based pellets (non-medicated).
6. 200g/7oz soybean flakes or oil cakes (non-medicated).
7. 200g/7oz rice bran oil or organic compost.
8. 200g/7oz wheat flour and bran oils.
9. 200-300g/7-10 oz fish meal (non-medicated).
Koi Fish Growth Stages
There are four stages in hybrid koi fish farming: eggs, fry, fingerlings, and adults. Please note that the eggs can be hatched naturally or artificially, depending on the breeder’s experience or purpose.
Breeding, Caring & Other Management
You should feed your koi fish twice a day. You should provide them with the same amount of water in a day and about 100-200 gallons per acre. The temperature in a pond should be between 15-18 degrees Celsius.
If you see that your koi fish is blind, deaf, or has slime on their bodies, you can immediately take them to a veterinarian.
Harvesting & Marketing
Koi Fish are usually marketed as fingerlings at the size of 3-4 inches. Koi Matsuri is a Japanese festival celebrated around November when koi prices go up due to a demand for Fish in seasonal cuisine and food preparation.
The price of Koi fish is determined by the color, pattern, and quality of its scales. Koi Fish are available in various colors, with white being the most expensive.
The Best 10 Ideas Tips For Koi Fish Farming
1. When your Koi Fish are ready to switch to commercial farming, they will be about 6 months old.
2. You should not allow your Koi Fish to breed only once and then stop breeding them and let them die.
3. The temperature in a pond should be between 15-18 degrees Celsius.
4. Provide them with different sources of food from many different sources
5. Provide water plants and seeds for them to be healthy and happy
6. Check the pH level in the water every day.
7. Check the water quality every day and feed your koi fish with different nutritional supplements as per their needs from time to time.
8. Observe them closely and give them what they need.
9. You can feed your koi fish twice a day, check their diet at least twice in the day and remove any expired food
10. You should not feed your koi fish only one type of food all the time
Advantages of Hybrid Koi fish farming
1. Hybrid Koi fish farming can be done with a small farm, less than 10 fish
2. Hybrid Koi fish farming has been seen to produce more colors of each type of Koi
3. Hybrid Koi fish farming produces fewer disturbances in the environment and requires less water
4. Hybrid KoIs have an incredible lifecycle span, up to 45 years old, making them more stable for long term investments
5. Hybrid Koi fish farming produces more Koi per acre due to their ability to breed in larger groups
6. Hybrid Koi fish farming is becoming more and more of a global trend as a viable alternative to traditional Koi and Carp farming, which are threatened by the dwindling supply of water in certain areas and subsidence.
7. Using hybrid Koi Fish in your commercial koi farm can increase your profitability by sharing reduced expenses (maintenance, equipment, chemical, labor)
8. Hybrid Koi fish farming is the ideal food source for Koi & Carp variety of Fish
9. Hybrid Kois are highly desirable species due to their beautiful appearance and lifespan
10. Hybrid Kois have unique and adorable characteristics that can be appreciated in any commercial or domestic koi farm environment.
No matter how much you read about the breeding, raising, and feeding of Koi Fish, you will not be able to grow a Koi fish if you don’t know the fundamentals of pisciculture.
It doesn’t matter how many kinds of food you give your baby Koi Fish. It won’t make any difference if he is fed only with water and pellets or high nutritional food like fry food every day. It’s all about proper feeding and management.
Don’t wait and rush things if you think the right time to harvest your Koi Fish is coming. Taking proper care of your baby fish and growing them well will result in a good harvest. Thanks for reading Hybrid Koi Fish Farming.